Overview of Passifloraceae Family
The Passifloraceae family, commonly known as passionflowers, comprises about 500-550 species of tropical and subtropical flowering plants. The family includes lianas, herbs, shrubs, and trees. Some of the species of Passifloraceae are cultivated as ornamental plants, while some are used for medicinal purposes.
Taxonomy and Classification
The Passifloraceae family belongs to the order Malpighiales and is part of the angiosperms (flowering plants). The family comprises two subfamilies, Passifloroideae and Paropsioideae. Passifloroideae is the larger of the two subfamilies, consisting of 16 tribes, while Paropsioideae comprises only one tribe.
The taxonomy of this family has been revised several times, with the latest classification being done in 2008. The revision included the inclusion of three new genera, while two older genera were redefined. The current classification recognizes 16 genera, with Passiflora being the largest, containing over 400 species.
Passionflowers are known for their showy and intricate flowers, which have a unique structure. The flowers are typically composed of a calyx, corolla, and an androgynophore, which is a stalk-like structure that elevates the reproductive structures above the floral base. The reproductive structures consist of five stamens and a single pistil, which is usually bent towards the stamens.
Another unique feature of passionflowers is their foliage. The leaves are usually palmate or lobed and are often used as food sources for various species of butterflies. In addition, some species of passionflowers are known to produce edible fruits, such as the passionfruit, which is commonly used in drinks and desserts worldwide.
Passifloraceae family also contains several alkaloids that have medicinal properties, such as those found in Passiflora incarnata, which is commonly used as an herbal remedy for anxiety and sleep disorders.
Overall, the Passifloraceae family is unique for its showy and intricate flowers, specialized foliage, and medicinal properties.
Distribution of Passifloraceae family
The Passifloraceae family is widely distributed throughout the world, with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. The family is particularly diverse in South America, where more than half of all Passifloraceae species are found. Other regions with high levels of species richness include Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. In addition, a number of species are found in Africa, Madagascar, Australia, and Asia, where they are mostly concentrated in coastal areas.
Habitats of Passifloraceae family
Plants from the Passifloraceae family are found in a wide range of natural habitats, including forests, savannas, grasslands, and wetlands. Many species are adapted to grow in disturbed habitats, such as roadsides and abandoned fields, while others are found in high-elevation cloud forests or on rocky outcrops. Some species are even capable of surviving in harsh, arid environments.
Ecological preferences and adaptations of Passifloraceae family
The Passifloraceae family exhibits a number of ecological preferences and adaptations that are important for their survival in different habitats. For example, many species have evolved to attract certain pollinators, such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds, by producing brightly colored flowers with nectar and pollen rewards. Other species have evolved traits that protect them from herbivores or enable them to compete with other plants for resources.
In addition, some species in the Passifloraceae family are useful to humans, either as sources of food, medicine, or ornamental plants. Some species, such as passion fruit and maypop, are cultivated for their edible fruits, while others, such as Passiflora incarnata, have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including anxiety and insomnia.
General Morphology and Structure of Plants in the Passifloraceae Family
The Passifloraceae family is a diverse group of flowering plants that includes more than 700 species. These plants are found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Members of this family may be vines, shrubs, or trees, and they often have complex leaves and distinctive flowers. One of the most well-known members of this family is the passion fruit, which is grown for its edible fruit.
Passifloraceae plants have several morphological and anatomical characteristics that distinguish them from other plant families. These include:
- Alternate leaves that grow along the stem
- Vines that climb by tendrils or trees and shrubs that form branches
- Flowers with complex structures, including five sepals, five petals, and a corona of filaments that radiate from the center of the flower
- Fruit that is typically a berry
Anatomical Features and Adaptations
Passifloraceae plants have several adaptations that allow them to survive in their environments. These adaptations include:
- A specialized root system that allows the plants to absorb nutrients and water from a variety of soil types
- A waxy cuticle on the leaves that helps the plant retain moisture in dry conditions
- A complex vascular system that allows nutrients and water to be transported efficiently throughout the plant
- A unique pollination system that involves attracting specific pollinators to the flower
Variations in Leaf Shapes and Flower Structures
While Passifloraceae plants share many morphological features, there is also significant variation within the family. For example, the leaves of different species can have a variety of shapes and sizes. Some species have simple, ovate leaves, while others have deeply lobed leaves that resemble a hand. The leaves of some species are also covered in fine hairs or have a distinct texture, which may help protect the plant from predators or reduce water loss.
Similarly, the flowers of Passifloraceae plants can also vary in their structures. While all species have the characteristic five sepals, five petals, and corona of filaments, these structures can differ in size, shape, and color. Some species have flowers that are only a few centimeters across, while others have flowers that can be more than 10 centimeters in diameter. The colors of the flowers can also vary widely, with some species having flowers that are white, pink, or red, while others have flowers that are blue, purple, or yellow.
Reproductive Strategies in Passifloraceae
The Passifloraceae family consists of mostly perennial plants with a variety of reproductive strategies, including sexual, asexual, and specialized methods of reproduction.
Mechanisms of Reproduction
In Passifloraceae, sexual reproduction occurs through the fusion of male and female gametes, with fertilization taking place within the ovule. Some members of the family are self-compatible, while others require cross-pollination between different plants. Asexual reproduction through vegetative propagation is common, with some species producing adventitious shoots or rhizomes that grow into independent plants. The family also has unique methods of reproduction, such as apomixis and cleistogamy.
Flowering and Pollination Strategies
Passifloraceae plants are often highly ornamental and produce showy flowers that are adapted to attract specific pollinators. Flowering patterns vary among species, with some producing a continuous display of flowers and others producing flowers in seasonal or irregular bursts. Pollination strategies include adaptations for wind, water, or animal pollination, with many species dependent on insects such as bees, butterflies, and moths. The flowers of some Passifloraceae plants also produce a sweet nectar that attracts pollinators.
Seed Dispersal and Adaptations
Passifloraceae plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for seed dispersal, including wind, water, and animal vectors such as birds and mammals. Some species produce edible fruits with seeds that are dispersed through the digestive tracts of animals. The seeds of some Passifloraceae plants have specialized adaptations, such as hard seed coats that protect against herbivores, or specialized appendages that allow for attachment to passing animals or objects.
The Passifloraceae family has numerous economic uses, primarily in medicine, food, and industry.
Medicinally, plants within this family have been traditionally used to treat nervous and gastrointestinal disorders due to their anxiolytic and sedative properties. Passiflora incarnata, commonly known as maypop, is a species that has been used to treat anxiety and insomnia. Moreover, Passiflora edulis has shown potential for treating some gastrointestinal disorders and reducing inflammation.
Culinarily, the family is well-known for its edible fruit from the Passiflora species. The most commonly consumed fruit is Passiflora edulis, known as passion fruit, which is rich in vitamins A and C. Furthermore, the seeds of the Passion fruit can be processed into oil and used for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Industrially, some species within the family are used for their fibers and wood. Some species, such as Passiflora quadrangularis, have been used for the production of strong, durable fibers suitable for making textiles and paper. Others, such as Passiflora nitida, are used for their dense, durable wood, which is commonly used for construction.
The Passifloraceae family has a significant ecological role in the ecosystems in which they occur. The family is a host to a range of insects, including butterflies and bees. Furthermore, the bright-colored and sweet-smelling flowers attract pollinators and increase the biodiversity of the ecosystems.
Additionally, some species within the family serve as food for different animals. For example, Passiflora edulis is a food source for fruit bats, rodents, and birds such as the Purple-crowned Fairy. Furthermore, the fruits themselves serve as a source of nutrients for a vast array of animals, including humans.
Moreover, the plants within this family have been used to control soil erosion in certain regions. Passiflora coccinea, for example, can be grown as an ornamental plant and its roots help in holding the soil together, reducing soil erosion in the region where it grows.
Conservation Status and Conservation Efforts
Some species within the Passifloraceae family are at risk of extinction due to human activities such as deforestation and habitat destruction. For instance, Passiflora tripartita var. mollis, commonly known as banana passionfruit, is listed as an endangered species due to habitat loss in its native range of Ecuador and Peru.
Conservation efforts, such as those by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), have been monitoring and creating strategies to conserve these species. The IUCN has developed a Red List that identifies the conservation status of endangered species to allocate conservation resources effectively. Additionally, conservation groups have implemented strategies to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity and the need to preserve the habitats of endangered species.
Featured plants from the Passifloraceae family
More plants from the Passifloraceae family
- Adenia aculeata (Oliv.) Engl. subsp. aculeata
- Adenia aculeata (Oliv.) Engl. subsp. inermis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia aculeata (Oliv.) Engl. subsp. manganiana (Chiov.) W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia adenifera Engl.
- Adenia apiculatum (De Wild. & T.Durand) Engl.
- Adenia aspidophylla Harms
- Adenia ballyi Verdc.
- Adenia bequaertii Robyns & Lawalrée subsp. bequaertii
- Adenia bequaertii Robyns & Lawalrée subsp. macranthera W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia bequaertii Robyns & Lawalrée subsp. occidentalis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms
- Adenia cynanchifolia (Benth.) Harms
- Adenia dewevrei (De Wild. & T.Durand) Engl.
- Adenia digitata (Harv.) Engl.
- Adenia dinklagei Hutch. & Dalziel
- Adenia dolichosiphon Harms
- Adenia ellenbeckii Harms
- Adenia erecta W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia fernandesiana A.Robyns
- Adenia fruticosa Burtt Davy subsp. fruticosa
- Adenia fruticosa Burtt Davy subsp. simplicifolia W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia fruticosa Burtt Davy subsp. trifoliata W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia gedoensis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia glauca Schinz
- Adenia globosa Engl. subsp. curvata (Verdc.) W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia globosa Engl. subsp. globosa
- Adenia globosa Engl. subsp. pseudoglobosa (Verdc.) W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia goetzei Harms
- Adenia gracilis Harms
- Adenia gracilis Harms subsp. pinnata W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia guineensis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms var. cerifera W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms var. gummifera
- Adenia hastata (Harv.) Schinz var. glandulifera W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia hastata (Harv.) Schinz var. hastata
- Adenia huillensis (Welw.) A.Fern. & R.Fern.
- Adenia inermis (W.J.de Wilde) W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia karibaensis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia keramanthus Harms
- Adenia kirkii (Mast.) Engl.
- Adenia lanceolata Engl. subsp. lanceolata
- Adenia lanceolata Engl. subsp. scheffleri (Engl. & Harms) W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia latepetala W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia letouzeyi W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia lewallei A.Robyns
- Adenia lindiensis Harms
- Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. subsp. lobata
- Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. subsp. rumicifolia (Engl. & Harms) Lye
- Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. subsp. schweinfurthii (Engl.) Lye
- Adenia lobulata Engl.
- Adenia malangeana Harms
- Adenia manganiana Chiov.
- Adenia mannii (Mast.) Engl.
- Adenia metriosiphon W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia miegei Aké Assi
- Adenia mossambicensis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia mukengensis Harms
- Adenia natalensis W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia ovata W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia panduraeformis Engl.
- Adenia panduriformis auct.
- Adenia pechuelii (Engl.) Harms
- Adenia poggei (Engl.) Engl.
- Adenia pseudoglobosa Verdc. subsp. curvata Verdc.
- Adenia pseudoglobosa Verdc. subsp. pseudoglobosa
- Adenia pulchra M.G.Gilbert & W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia racemosa W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia repanda (Burch.) Engl.
- Adenia reticulata (De Wild. & T.Durand) Engl.
- Adenia reticulata (De Wild. & T.Durand) Engl. var. cinerea W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia rumicifolia Engl. & Harms
- Adenia rumicifolia Engl. & Harms var. miegei (Aké Assi) W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia scheffleri Engl. & Harms
- Adenia schliebenii Harms
- Adenia schweinfurthii Engl.
- Adenia spinosa Burtt Davy
- Adenia staudtii auct.
- Adenia staudtii Harms
- Adenia stenodactyla Harms
- Adenia stolzii Harms
- Adenia stricta (Mast.) Engl.
- Adenia tenuispira (Stapf) Engl.
- Adenia tisserantii A.& R.Fern.
- Adenia toxicaria Harms
- Adenia tricostata W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia trisecta (Mast.) Engl.
- Adenia tuberifera R.E.Fr.
- Adenia venenata Forssk.
- Adenia vitifolia Hutch. & Bruce
- Adenia volkensii Harms
- Adenia welwitschii (Mast.) Engl.
- Adenia wightiana (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) M.Roem.
- Adenia wightiana (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) M.Roem. subsp. africana W.J.de Wilde
- Adenia wilmsii Harms
- Adenia zambesiensis R. & A.Fern.
- Atheranthera paniculata Mast.
- Barteria acuminata Baker f.
- Barteria dewevrei De Wild. & T.Durand
- Barteria fistulosa Mast.
- Barteria nigritana Hook.f.
- Barteria nigritana Hook.f. subsp. fistulosa (Mast.) Sleumer
- Barteria solida Breteler
- Barteria stuhlmannii Engl. & Gilg
- Barteria urophylla Mildbr.
- Basananthe aciphylla Thulin
- Basananthe apetala (Baker f.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe aristolochioides A.Robyns
- Basananthe baumii (Harms) W.J.de Wilde var. baumii
- Basananthe baumii (Harms) W.J.de Wilde var. caerulescens (A.Fern. & R.Fern.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe berberoides (Chiov.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe botryoidea A.Robyns
- Basananthe cupricola A.Robyns
- Basananthe gossweileri (Hutch. & K.Pearce) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe hanningtoniana (Mast.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe hederae W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe heterophylla Schinz
- Basananthe hispidula W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe holmesii R. & A.Fern.
- Basananthe kottoensis W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe kundelunguensis A.Robyns
- Basananthe lanceolata (Engl.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe littoralis Peyr.
- Basananthe longifolia (Harms) R.Fern. & A.Fern.
- Basananthe malaissei A.Robyns
- Basananthe merolae Raimondo & Moggi
- Basananthe nummularia Welw.
- Basananthe papillosa (A.Fern. & R.Fern.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe parvifolia (Baker f.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe pedata (Baker f.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe phaulantha (Dandy) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe polygaloides (Hutch. & K.Pearce) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe pseudostipulata W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe pubiflora W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe reticulata (Baker f.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe sandersonii (Harv.) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe scabrida A.Robyns
- Basananthe scabrifolia (Dandy) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe spinosa W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe subsessilicarpa J.B.Gillett ex Verdc.
- Basananthe triloba (Bolus) W.J.de Wilde
- Basananthe zanzibarica (Mast.) W.J.de Wilde
- Carania berberoides Chiov.
- Crossostemma laurifolium Planch. ex Benth.
- Deidamia clematoides Harms
- Efulensia clematoides C.H.Wright
- Efulensia montana W.J.de Wilde
- Giorgiella congolana De Wild.
- Keramanthus kirkii Hook.f.
- Machadoa huillensis Welw.
- Microblepharis wightiana (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) M.Roem.
- Modecca abyssinica Hochst. ex A.Rich.
- Modecca aculeata Oliv.
- Modecca cissampeloides Planch. ex Hook.
- Modecca digitata Harv.
- Modecca diversifolia Wall.
- Modecca glauca Schinz
- Modecca gummifera Harv.
- Modecca hastata Harv.
- Modecca kirkii Mast.
- Modecca lobata Jacq.
- Modecca mannii Mast.
- Modecca repanda (Burch.) Druce
- Modecca stricta Mast.
- Modecca trisecta Mast.
- Modecca welwitschii Mast.
- Modecca wightiana Wall. ex Wight & Arn.
- Ophiocaulon cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Mast.
- Ophiocaulon gracile (Harms) Pellegr.
- Ophiocaulon gummifer Mast.
- Ophiocaulon reticulatum De Wild. & T.Durand
- Paropsia argutidens Sleumer
- Paropsia bequaertii De Wild.
- Paropsia braunii Gilg
- Paropsia brazzeana Baill.
- Paropsia decandra (Baill.) Warb.
- Paropsia dewevrei De Wild. & T.Durand var. condensata De Wild.
- Paropsia gabonica Breteler
- Paropsia grewioides Welw. ex Mast. var. grewioides
- Paropsia grewioides Welw. ex Mast. var. orientalis Sleumer
- Paropsia guineensis Oliv.
- Paropsia pritzelii Gilg
- Paropsia reticulata Engl.
- Paropsia schliebeniana Sleumer
- Paropsiopsis africana Engl.
- Paropsiopsis bipindensis Gilg
- Paropsiopsis decandra (Baill.) Sleumer
- Paropsiopsis ferruginea Exell
- Paropsiopsis jollyana Gilg
- Paropsiopsis leucantha Gilg
- Paropsiopsis pulchra Gilg
- Paropsiopsis zenkeri Gilg
- Passiflora affinis Engelm. - Bracted Passionflower
- Passiflora altocaerulea Lindl. - >>passiflora Belotii
- Passiflora amethystina J.C.Mikan
- Passiflora anadenia Urban - Tropical Passionflower
- Passiflora antioquiensis Karsten - Passionflower
- Passiflora berteriana Balbis ex DC. - Pasionaria De Cercas
- Passiflora bicornis P. Mill. - Wingleaf Passionflower
- Passiflora biflora Lam. - Twoflower Passionflower
- Passiflora biflora Lam.
- Passiflora bilobata Juss. - Twolobe Passionflower
- Passiflora bryonioides Kunth - Cupped Passionflower
- Passiflora caerulea - Passion Flower
- Passiflora caerulea L. - Common Passionflower
- Passiflora caeruleo-racemosa Sabine - Passionflower
- Passiflora capsularis L.
- Passiflora ciliata Ait. - Fringed Passionflower
- Passiflora ciliata Ait. var. riparia C. Wright - Fringed Passionflower
- Passiflora cincinnata Masters - Crato Passionvine
- Passiflora cinnabarina Lindl.
- Passiflora coccinea Aubl. - Scarlet Passionflower
- Passiflora coerulea L.
- Passiflora coriacea Juss.
- Passiflora edulis - Passion Fruit
- Passiflora edulis Sims
- Passiflora filipes Benth. - Slender Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. - Fetid Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L.
- Passiflora foetida L. forma glabra A.& R.Fern.
- Passiflora foetida L. var. arizonica Killip - Arizonia Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. var. foetida - Fetid Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. var. gossypiifolia (Desv. ex Hamilton) Masters - Cottonleaf Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. var. hispida (DC. ex Triana & Planch.) Killip - Scarletfruit Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. var. isthmia Killip - Scarletfruit Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. var. lanuginosa Killip - Scarletfruit Passionflower
- Passiflora foetida L. var. riparia (C. Wright) Killip - >>passiflora Ciliata Var. Riparia
- Passiflora gracilis Jacq. ex Link - Crinkled Passionflower
- Passiflora herbertiana
- Passiflora incarnata - Maypops
- Passiflora L. - Passionflower
- Passiflora laurifolia L. - Golden Bellapple
- Passiflora laurifolia L.
- Passiflora ligularis Juss. - Sweet Granadilla
- Passiflora ligularis Juss.
- Passiflora lutea L. - Yellow Passionflower
- Passiflora lutea L. var. glabriflora Fern. - >>passiflora Lutea
- Passiflora maliformis L. - Conch Apple
- Passiflora maliformis L.
- Passiflora manicata (Juss.) Pers. - Red Passionflower
- Passiflora manicata (Juss.) Pers.
- Passiflora membranacea - Passion Flower
- Passiflora mexicana Juss. - Mexican Passionflower
- Passiflora mixta L. f. - Passionflower
- Passiflora mollisima - Banana Passion Fruit
- Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) Bailey - Banana Passionflower
- Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L.H.Bailey
- Passiflora morifolia Mast.
- Passiflora morifolia Masters - Woodland Passionflower
- Passiflora multiflora L. - Whiteflower Passionflower
- Passiflora murucuja L. - Virgin Island Passionflower
- Passiflora pallens Poepp. ex Masters - Pineland Passionflower
- Passiflora pallida L. - >>passiflora Suberosa
- Passiflora pulchella Kunth - >>passiflora Bicornis
- Passiflora quadrangularis L. - Giant Granadilla
- Passiflora quadrangularis L.
- Passiflora racemosa Brot. - Passionflower
- Passiflora racemosa Brot.
- Passiflora rubra L. - Dutchman's Laudanum
- Passiflora serratifolia L.
- Passiflora serratodigitata L. - Tagua Tagua
- Passiflora sexflora Juss. - Goatsfoot
- Passiflora species - Passion Flower
- Passiflora suberosa L. - Corkystem Passionflower
- Passiflora suberosa L.
- Passiflora subpeltata Ortega - White Passionflower
- Passiflora subpeltata Ortega
- Passiflora tenuiloba Engelm. - Birdwing Passionflower
- Passiflora tetrandra
- Passiflora tiliifolia L.
- Passiflora trifasciata Lem.
- Passiflora tripartita (Juss.) Poir.
- Passiflora tripartita (Juss.) Poir. var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm-Niels. & P.Jørg.
- Passiflora tuberosa Jacq. - Tuberous Passionflower
- Passiflora tulae Urban - Mountain Love In The Mist
- Passiflora umbilicata - Passion Flower
- Passiflora van-volxemii (Lem.) Triana & Planchon - >>passiflora Antioquiensis
- Passiflora violacea Vell.
- Passiflora vitifolia Kunth - Perfumed Passionflower
- Passiflora vitifolia Kunth
- Passiflora warmingii Masters - >>passiflora Morifolia
- Passiflora x allardii Lynch
- Passiflora x colvillii - Passion Flower
- Passiflora ×belotii hort. ex Pepin
- Passiflora ×colvillii Sweet - Colville's Passionflower
- Schlechterina mitostemmatoides Harms
- Smeathmannia decandra Baill.
- Smeathmannia laevigata Sol. ex R.Br. var. laevigata
- Smeathmannia laevigata Sol. ex R.Br. var. nigerica A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel
- Smeathmannia pubescens Sol. ex R.Br.
- Tacsonia mollissima Kunth - >>passiflora Mollissima
- Tryphostemma alatopetiolatum Harms
- Tryphostemma apetala Baker f.
- Tryphostemma apetala Baker f. var. serratum Baker f.
- Tryphostemma arenophilum Pott
- Tryphostemma baumii Harms
- Tryphostemma caerulescens A.& R.Fern.
- Tryphostemma cuneatum Engl.
- Tryphostemma foetidum J.-P.Lebrun & Taton
- Tryphostemma friesii Nordl.
- Tryphostemma gossweileri Hutch. & K.Pearce
- Tryphostemma hanningtoniana Mast.
- Tryphostemma harmsianum Dinter
- Tryphostemma heterophyllum (Schinz) Engl.
- Tryphostemma humile Dandy
- Tryphostemma lanceolatum Engl.
- Tryphostemma littoralis (Peyr.) Engl.
- Tryphostemma longifolium Harms
- Tryphostemma mendesii A.& R.Fern.
- Tryphostemma natalense Mast.
- Tryphostemma nummularia (Welw.) Engl.
- Tryphostemma papillosa A.& R.Fern.
- Tryphostemma parvifolia Baker f.
- Tryphostemma pedatum Baker f.
- Tryphostemma phaulantha Dandy
- Tryphostemma pilosum Harms
- Tryphostemma polygaloides Hutch. & K.Pearce
- Tryphostemma reticulatum Baker f.
- Tryphostemma sagittatum Hutch. & K.Pearce
- Tryphostemma sandersonii Harv.
- Tryphostemma scabrifolium Dandy
- Tryphostemma schinzianum Harms
- Tryphostemma schlechteri Schinz
- Tryphostemma stuhlmannii Harms
- Tryphostemma trilobum Bolus
- Tryphostemma viride Hutch. & K.Pearce
- Tryphostemma zanzibaricum Mast.
- Viridivia suberosa J.H.Hemsl. & Verdc.