Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. is a deciduous shrub originally from eastern Asia, including Japan, China, and Korea. It has been introduced and naturalized in many parts of the world, such as North America, Europe, and Australia.
Elaeagnus umbellata var. parvifolia is commonly known as autumn olive, Japanese silverberry, oleaster, and spreading oleaster. The common names reflect the plant's appearance and/or some of its uses.
A utomn olive has several uses, including:
- As an ornamental shrub in gardens and landscapes due to its dense foliage, silvery-green leaves, and fragrant yellow flowers in autumn
- As a windbreaker and soil stabilizer, especially in areas with poor soils or erosion issues
- As a food source for humans and wildlife, with the small red berries having a sweet-tart flavor and high nutritional value
- As a medicinal plant, with the leaves, roots, and fruits traditionally used in herbal remedies for various ailments such as fever, constipation, and skin rashes
- As a nitrogen-fixing plant, with root nodules that house bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form usable by plants
Elaeagnus umbellata var. parvifolia is a shrub that can grow up to 6 meters tall and 3 meters wide. It has a spreading habit with many branches, thorns, and a hairy twigs. The leaves are alternate, lanceolate to oval in shape, and silvery-green in color with wavy margins. The yellow, tubular flowers grow in clusters at the end of the branches and appear in autumn. The small, spherical berries are red, juicy, and speckled with silver dots.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. is a hardy plant that can tolerate a variety of light conditions. However, it grows best in full sun or partial shade. It requires at least six hours of direct sunlight daily to thrive and produce good fruit yields. When planted in partial shade, it tends to produce less fruit.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. grows well in a range of temperatures. It is adapted to a wide variety of climatic conditions, from hot and dry to cold and humid. However, it grows best in temperatures between 15-30°C. It can survive temperatures as low as -30°C in winter, but frost can damage the flowers and reduce fruit production.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. prefers well-drained soil that is fertile, loamy, and slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.5-7.5. It can tolerate a wide range of soil types, including sandy, loamy, and clay soils, as long as they are well-drained and not waterlogged. The plant can grow in soils that are low in nutrients, but it produces more fruit when grown in fertile soil.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. are very adaptable and can grow in almost all types of soil, including poor soils, but it prefers well-drained soils with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5. It can tolerate both full sun and partial shade but prefer to grow in sunny areas. The plant can grow up to 5 meters tall and 4 meters wide, so it is important to provide adequate space for growth.
Propagation of Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. can be done through seeds or vegetative cuttings. The plant has a fast growth rate, and it can be planted in the spring or fall season.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. prefers moderate watering and can tolerate drought once it is established. However, young plants require regular watering to ensure their proper growth and development.
It is important to avoid overwatering, as this can lead to root rot and other diseases. A good way to check if the plant requires watering is to dig a small hole about 2-3 inches deep in the soil surrounding the plant. If the soil is dry, then watering is required.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. requires moderate fertilization during its growing season. It is recommended to use a balanced fertilizer with equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Fertilizers should be applied in the spring and fall season when the plant is actively growing.
It is important to avoid applying too much fertilizer, as this can lead to excessive growth and reduce the plant's fruiting.
Elagagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. requires minimal pruning, but it is still important to remove any dead or diseased branches to keep the plant healthy and promote new growth. The pruning should be done in late winter or early spring before the plant starts its growth.
You can also prune the plant to shape it, remove any crossing branches, or control its size. Keeping the plant in a manageable size makes it easier to harvest the fruit and maintain the plant's health.
Propagation of Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid., commonly known as dwarf Russian olive or small-leaved silverberry, is a deciduous shrub with a spreading growth habit that is native to Asia. It is primarily propagated by seed, cuttings, and layering.
Propagation by Seed
The most common method of propagating Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia is by seed. The seeds should be collected in the fall, once they have ripened and turned brown. They should be stratified for several months in cool, moist conditions before sowing in early spring. Germination can take several weeks to several months and is often erratic.
Propagation by Cuttings
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia can also be propagated by hardwood, softwood, or semi-hardwood cuttings taken in the fall or early spring. Hardwood cuttings should be taken in the late fall or winter, while softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings should be taken in the early spring when the new growth is just beginning to harden off. Cuttings should be dipped in a rooting hormone and placed in a well-draining rooting medium. Bottom heat can help to speed up the rooting process.
Propagation by Layering
Layering is another method of propagating Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia. The branches should be bent down to the ground and covered with soil or mulch. Once roots have formed on the buried stem, the new plant can be separated from the parent plant and transplanted to its permanent location.
Disease and Pest Management for Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid.
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. is a deciduous shrub native to Asia. It is resilient and hardy, making it an ideal plant for gardens and landscapes. However, like any plant, it is susceptible to diseases and pests.
1. Leaf spot - Leaf spot is a fungal disease that causes brown or black spots on the leaves. These spots can merge and cause defoliation. To manage leaf spot, remove infected leaves and prune the plant to improve air circulation. Use fungicides if necessary.
2. Powdery mildew - Powdery mildew is another fungal disease that covers leaves with a white powdery substance. This disease can inhibit growth and cause leaves to drop. To manage powdery mildew, use sulfate-based fungicides and prune the plant to improve air circulation.
3. Rust - Rust is a fungal disease that causes orange or yellow spots on the leaves and stems. This disease can also cause defoliation. To manage rust, remove infected leaves and prune the plant to improve air circulation. Use fungicides if necessary.
1. Aphids - Aphids are small insects that suck the sap from the leaves, causing them to wilt and deform. To manage aphids, remove them by hand or use insecticidal soap and neem oil.
2. Spider mites - Spider mites are tiny insects that spin webs on the leaves and suck the sap out of them, causing them to yellow and bronzed. To manage spider mites, spray the plant with water to knock them off, and use insecticidal soap or neem oil.
3. Scale insects - Scale insects are small, oval-shaped insects that cover the leaves and stems in a hard shell-like covering. They suck the sap from the plant, causing it to weaken and eventually die. To manage scale insects, remove them by hand and use insecticidal soap.
Overall, maintaining good cultural practices such as proper watering, fertilization, and pruning can help to prevent diseases and pests. Regularly monitoring the plant for signs of disease and infestation and taking prompt action can also go a long way in managing these problems.