Dendranthema arcticum (L.) Tzvelev ssp. arcticum is a herbaceous perennial plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is commonly known by various names including Arctic chrysanthemum, Arctic daisy, and Arctic marigold. This plant is native to the Arctic regions of Europe and North America.
Arctic chrysanthemum grows up to a maximum height of 30 cm. It has grayish-green leaves that are deeply divided and lobed. This plant produces yellow, daisy-like flowers with a diameter of approximately 3-4 cm. The flowers are composed of both ray and disk florets. They bloom in the summer and early autumn seasons.
Arctic chrysanthemum has some traditional uses amongst the indigenous tribes inhabiting the Arctic region. For instance, the Iñupiat Eskimos used the plant's root extracts for treating stomach ailments, while the Tlingit people employed it for easing respiratory tract infections. The blossom of Arctic chrysanthemum is edible and could be consumed raw or cooked. However, it is not a common food source. In modern times, the plant is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, borders, and rock gardens. The Arctic chrysanthemum is tolerant of cold conditions and can add a touch of color to gardens even in regions with harsh winters.
Good lighting is essential for the proper growth of Dendranthema arcticum. It requires full sun exposure to partial shade to thrive. At least 6 hours of direct sunlight a day is ideal for the plant.
Dendranthema arcticum grows well in cool climates, making it an ideal plant choice for temperate gardens. It prefers temperatures ranging from 15°C to 20°C during the day and 2°C to 10°C at night. The plant tends to wilt in hot weather and may require extra watering and shading.
The plant grows best in well-draining soils with a slightly acidic to neutral pH. It prefers soils that are moist but not waterlogged. The soil should be rich in organic matter, and adding compost or well-rotted manure would be beneficial. Dendranthema arcticum can also grow in sandy soils but may require extra watering and fertilization.
Dendranthema arcticum (L.) Tzvelev ssp. arcticum grows best in well-draining soil with a neutral to alkaline pH level between 6.5-7.5. This plant can tolerate partial shade to full sun, with full sun being the best for optimum growth and flower production. It needs good air circulation, so avoid planting it in an area that remains wet most of the time.
Dendranthema arcticum requires regular watering to keep the soil moist. However, too much water can lead to root rot, so it is essential to ensure proper soil drainage. Avoid overwatering by letting the top layer of the soil dry out before watering again. During the hot summer months, increase the frequency of watering, as the plant needs more moisture.
Fertilize Dendranthema arcticum once a month during the growing season, from early spring through to late fall. Use a balanced, slow-release fertilizer formulated for flowering plants, and follow the manufacturer's application rates. Be careful not to over-fertilize, as this can cause excessive foliage growth at the expense of flowering.
Pruning Dendranthema arcticum is necessary to ensure a compact, bushy plant and abundant flower production. The best time to prune is in early spring before new growth appears. Cut back the stems by about one-third to half, using sharp, clean pruning shears. Remove any dead, diseased, or damaged growth. Pinch back the tips of new growth in late spring to encourage branching and more flowers.
Propagation of Dendranthema arcticum (L.) Tzvelev ssp. arcticum
Dendranthema arcticum (L.) Tzvelev ssp. arcticum, commonly known as Arctic chrysanthemum, is a herbaceous perennial plant native to the Arctic regions of Europe and Asia. Propagation of this plant can be done through various methods such as division, seed propagation, and stem cutting.
Division is the easiest and most common method for propagating Arctic chrysanthemums. The best time to divide the plant is during early spring when new growth appears. The plant can be carefully dug up, and the rootball can be divided into several sections. Each section should have several roots and a few shoots. The divided sections can then be replanted immediately in a well-draining soil mix.
Seed propagation is another method for propagating Arctic chrysanthemums. Collect seeds during the fall months when they are ripe. The seeds can be sown in late winter or early spring in a sterile seed starting mix. The seeds need light for germination, so they can be spread on top of the soil and lightly pressed into the surface. Keep the soil moist and work with the plant once sprouted.
Stem cutting is another propagation method where a healthy stem with leaves is cut from the parent plant and then rooted in a rooting hormone. Remove all the leaves from the lower one-third of the stem and immerse the cut end in hormone powder. Plant the stem in a well-draining soil mix and keep it moist, the cutting will grow into a new plant with time.
Dendranthema arcticum ssp. arcticum is susceptible to several diseases that can affect its growth and yield. Some of the common diseases that can affect this plant include:
- Botrytis blight: This is a fungal disease that affects the flowers and leaves of the plant. It causes the formation of greyish-brown patches on the affected parts. To manage this disease, it is important to ensure good air circulation and avoid overhead watering. Fungicides can also be used to control the disease.
- Rust: Rust is a fungal disease that causes the formation of orange or brownish spots on the leaves of the plant. To manage rust, it is important to remove and destroy infected leaves as soon as possible. Fungicides can also be used to control the disease.
- Powdery mildew: Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that causes a white powdery coating on the leaves of the plant. It can affect the growth and yield of the plant. To manage powdery mildew, it is important to avoid overhead watering, ensure good air circulation, and remove infected leaves. Fungicides can also be used to control the disease.
Dendranthema arcticum ssp. arcticum is also susceptible to pests that can affect its growth and yield. Some of the common pests that can affect this plant include:
- Aphids: Aphids are small insects that feed on the sap of the plant. They can cause stunted growth and distorted leaves. To manage aphids, it is important to regularly inspect the plant and remove them by hand or use insecticidal soap.
- Spider mites: Spider mites are small pests that suck the sap of the plant and cause discoloration of the leaves. They can be managed by maintaining high humidity around the plant, removing infected leaves, and using insecticidal soap.
- Cutworms: Cutworms are soil-dwelling pests that feed on the stem of the plant, causing wilting and stunted growth. To manage cutworms, it is important to use barriers around the plant stem and handpicking them at night when they are active.