Overview of Catillariaceae Plant Family
Catillariaceae is a family of lichenized fungi classified in the order Lecanorales. This family consists of small to medium-sized lichens with cup-shaped or crustose thalli, and contains 8 genera and around 70 species.
The Catillariaceae family was recognized by the Swedish botanist John Axel Nannfeldt in 1943. The family name is derived from the type genus Catillaria. Species in this family are classified based on their morphological and molecular characteristics.
The type genus Catillaria was formerly placed in the family Lecideaceae, but molecular studies have shown that it is more closely related to the family Lecanoraceae. In addition to Catillaria, other genera in this family include Catillariella, Ceratocaulon, Diplotomma, Nadvornikia, Phylloblastia, Placynthiella, and Pseudosagedia.
Catillariaceae lichens are typically found growing on rocks, soil, and bark in a variety of habitats. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this family is the presence of small ochre to bright yellow or orange pigments known as xanthones in their thalli. These pigments are responsible for the vibrant colors seen in some species of the family.
Another unique characteristic of Catillariaceae is that some of its members have been found to contain biologically-active compounds with potential pharmacological properties. For example, Catillaria chalybeia contains a compound that has been shown to inhibit the growth of a type of bacteria responsible for causing skin infections.
In summary, Catillariaceae is a family of lichenized fungi that is characterized by small to medium-sized lichens with cup-shaped or crustose thalli containing yellow or orange pigments. This family contains several genera and species, and some of its members have biologically-active compounds with potential pharmacological properties.
Distribution of Catillariaceae family
Catillariaceae is a family of lichenized fungi that can be found all over the world in various habitats. This family is widely distributed in the temperate regions but can also be found in tropical and boreal regions.
The family includes numerous species, which exhibit a diverse distribution pattern. Some species are found in restricted areas, while others have a broader distribution range, covering several countries.
Habitat of Catillariaceae family
The natural habitat for plants in the Catillariaceae family varies widely. They can be found in diverse habitats ranging from semi-arid deserts to the humid forests of the tropics.
Most lichen species require a solid substrate to grow on, often rocks or tree bark. However, some species can grow on soil or sand as well.
The family also has ecological preferences, with some species preferring the habitats that remain dry for a long time, while others prefer moist and shaded places that have a higher humidity.
Ecological preferences and adaptations of Catillariaceae family
Members of the Catillariaceae family are adapted to living in challenging environments. They are known to form lichen associations that allow them to tolerate the extreme conditions of their habitats and provide them with the necessary nutrients.
The family has some ecological preferences, such as algae species with which they form symbiotic relationships, and the types of substrates they prefer for growth.
Some species in the family are known to play an essential role in soil formation and nutrient cycling, making them important ecological components in their respective ecosystems.
Overall, the Catillariaceae family exhibits a wide distribution pattern, and the members can be found in various habitats worldwide. They have specific ecological preferences and adaptations that allow them to thrive in their challenging environments.
General Morphology and Structure of Plants in the Catillariaceae Family
The Catillariaceae family is a family of lichen-forming fungi that are commonly found in various ecosystems around the world. These fungi typically grow on rocks, bark, and soil and form crust-like structures that range from smooth to rough.
The main body of these fungi is the thallus, which is the vegetative, non-reproductive part of the plant. The thallus consists of fungal hyphae and algae or cyanobacteria that live in a symbiotic relationship. The hyphae provide a protective environment for the algae or cyanobacteria, which, in turn, provide the fungal partner with carbohydrates through photosynthesis.
The structure of the thallus can vary in shape and texture depending on the species. Some species have an areolate thallus, which is divided into small, flattened segments that resemble tiles. Other species have a crustose thallus, which is closely adhered to the substrate and appears to have no distinct lobes or segments.
Key Anatomical Features and Adaptations
One key anatomical feature of plants in the Catillariaceae family is the presence of a cortex layer, which is a protective layer of fungal hyphae that covers the algal or cyanobacterial layer. This layer protects the algae or cyanobacteria from desiccation and UV radiation and also helps to regulate water and nutrient uptake.
Another adaptation of these fungi is the ability to produce unique compounds, such as lichen acids, that protect them from herbivores and other environmental stressors. These compounds also contribute to the distinctive aroma and flavor of certain lichens.
Variations in Leaf Shapes, Flower Structures, or Other Distinctive Characteristics
As lichens, plants in the Catillariaceae family do not produce true leaves or flowers. However, some species can produce specialized structures such as apothecia, which are cup-shaped or disk-shaped structures that contain the reproductive organs of the fungi.
In terms of color, the thallus of these fungi can range from pale gray to dark brown. Some species have bright yellow or orange pigments, which are thought to play a role in protecting the lichen from excess light and/or aiding in photosynthesis.
The texture of the thallus can also vary from smooth to rough. Some species have a thick, pebbled surface, while others have a thin, papery texture.
Overall, plants in the Catillariaceae family have evolved a range of adaptations that allow them to thrive in a variety of environments. These fungi serve important ecological roles as well, providing habitats and food for a variety of organisms.
Reproductive strategies employed by plants in Catillariaceae familyPlants in the Catillariaceae family employ various reproductive strategies to ensure the continuation of their species. The most common mode of reproduction in the Catillariaceae family is sexual reproduction. However, a few species can reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction occurs through the fusion of gametes from different individuals. The gametes are produced in reproductive structures such as apothecia and perithecia.
Mechanisms of reproduction within the family, including any unique or specialized methodsThe family uses various mechanisms to reproduce, including wind and insect pollination. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes, which are produced in different reproductive structures such as apothecia and perithecia. A few species within the family can reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation or fragmentation.
Flowering patterns and pollination strategiesThe Catillariaceae family includes species that do not produce flowers, and as such, do not follow any flowering patterns. Instead, species in the family rely on wind and insect pollination. Insect pollination is rare in this family, with most species relying on wind pollination. The flowers produce copious amounts of pollen, which is carried by the wind over long distances.
Seed dispersal methods and adaptationsSeed dispersal in the Catillariaceae family is mostly done by wind. The family has developed various adaptations that facilitate seed dispersal by wind, such as light seeds and parachute-like structures that allow seeds to be carried over long distances. Some species have also developed specialized adaptations that facilitate seed dispersal by animals, such as sticky seeds that attach to animal fur or feathers. The family also employs asexual reproduction, which eliminates the need for seed dispersal.
- Arthrosporum A. Massal. - Arthrosporum
- Arthrosporum populorum A. Massal.
- Bacidia acclinis (Flotow) Zahlbr. - >>arthrosporum Populorum
- Bacidia declinis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. - >>catillaria Nigroclavata
- Bacidia globulosa (Florke) Hafellner & V. Wirth - >>catillaria Globulosa
- Bacidia populorum (A. Massal.) Trevisan - >>arthrosporum Populorum
- Catillaria A. Massal. - Catillaria
- Catillaria arctica Lynge - >>toninia Philippea
- Catillaria athallina (Hepp) Hellbom - >>toninia Athallina
- Catillaria chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.
- Catillaria crystallifera R. Kilias - >>toninia Lutosa
- Catillaria cupressi Zahlbr.
- Catillaria endochroma (Fee) Zahlbr.
- Catillaria flavens (Willey) Fink
- Catillaria franciscana (Tuck.) Herre
- Catillaria glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse
- Catillaria globulosa (Florke) Th. Fr.
- Catillaria heeri (Hepp) H. Olivier
- Catillaria jemtlandica Th. Fr. & Almq.
- Catillaria kansuensis H. Magn. - >>toninia Philippea
- Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
- Catillaria leptocheila (Tuck.) Riddle
- Catillaria muscicola Lynge
- Catillaria nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler
- Catillaria sculptruata H. Magn. - >>toninia Sculpturata
- Catillaria subnegans (Nyl.) Boistel
- Catillaria subnitida Hellbom - >>catillaria Tristis
- Catillaria subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
- Catillaria terrena (Willey) Zahlbr.
- Catillaria tristis (Mull. Arg.) Arnold
- Halecania alpivaga (Th. Fr.) M. Mayrh.
- Halecania M. Mayrh. - Halecania
- Halecania viridescens Coppins & P. James
- Kiliasia athallina (Hepp) Hafellner - >>toninia Athallina
- Kiliasia philippea (Mont.) Hafellner - >>toninia Philippea
- Lecania alpivaga Th. Fr. - >>halecania Alpivaga
- Lecania thallophila H. Magn. - >>halecania Alpivaga
- Lecidea scholanderi Lynge - >>toninia Tristis Ssp. Scholanderi
- Lecidea texana W. A. Weber - >>xanthopsorella Texana
- Psora scholanderi (Lynge) R. Anderson - >>toninia Tristis
- Psora texana W. A. Weber - >>xanthopsorella Texana
- Toninia A. Massal. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia alutacea (Anzi) Jatta - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia arctica Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia aromatica (Sm.) A. Massal. - Aromatic Bruised Lichen
- Toninia athallina (Hepp) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia bullata (G. Meyen & Flotow) Zahlbr. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia caeruleonigricans auct. - >>toninia Sedifolia
- Toninia candida (Weber) Th. Fr. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia caulescens Anzi - >>toninia Squalida
- Toninia cinereovirens (Schaerer) A. Massal. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia kolax Poelt - >>toninia Verrucarioides
- Toninia lutosa (Ach.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia massata (Tuck.) Herre - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia opuntioides (Vill.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia pennina (Schaerer) Gyelnik - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia philippea (Mont.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia physaroides (Opiz) Zahlbr. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia ruginosa (Tuck.) Herre - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia ruginosa (Tuck.) Herre ssp. pacifica Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia ruginosa (Tuck.) Herre ssp. ruginosa - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia sculpturata (H. Magn.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia sedifolia (Scop.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia squalida (Ach.) A. Massal. - Squalid Bruised Lichen
- Toninia squarrosa (Ach.) Th. Fr. - >>toninia Squalida
- Toninia subdiffracta Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia submexicana de Lesd. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia superioris Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tabacina auct. - >>toninia Tristis
- Toninia talparum Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ssp. arizonica Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ssp. asiae-centralis (H. Magn.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ssp. canadensis Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ssp. scholanderi (Lynge) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia tristis (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ssp. tristis - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia verrucarioides (Nyl.) Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Toninia weberi Timdal - Bruised Lichen
- Xanthopsora texana (W. A. Weber) Gotth. Schneider & W. A. Weber - >>xanthopsorella Texana
- Xanthopsorella Kalb & Hefellner - Xanthopsorella
- Xanthopsorella texana (W. A. Weber) Kalb & Hafellner